Patina is formed on copper and bronze objects due to the weather, in a relatively long period of time. Its vibrant green color is bluish, named verdigris. In old times it was used as a pigment, so verdigris was produced on purpose by acetic acid on the surface of objects and then was scraped off.
Using candles for mood lighting is very popular, in any time of the year. More expensive branded, scented candles are beloved also. In this case it might be more important that they burn clean, as long as it is possible with using most of their materials. These can be reached with some tricks and attention.
One of the mistakes is not to let the candle burn long enough at the first ignition. The size of the wax pool around the wick determines the life of the candle. This should be the biggest, close enough to the edge of the candle, unless it leaves a rim which won’t melt later. For this, burn a new candle for 1 hour per 2.5 cm in diameter.
A wick that is too long can cause a candle to start smoking. Keep your wick trimmed at all times, this results a steady flame, which means the candle’s burning process is in balance. The ideal length is 6 mm.
A candle that is in a draught can start flickering and will likely smoke, which causes a candle to start dripping. The solution is simple: don’t put the candle in the draught.
If the candle is placed in a lantern or container, make sure that air can flow freely for providing steady burning. The container should be big enough and open on top and bottom. This way the flame won’t flicker and smoke.
Candles are too close to each other can heat and melt each other which cause dripping and warping. Avoiding this, the ideal gap between the candles of a group is at least 10 cm.
When using candles, always take care of placing them away from inflammable materials and never let them unattended. Safety is first!
Electrical works of our home should always be done by a specialist. However, minimal skills about visible parts (switches, sockets) are needed for planning the lighting, especially when we have to purchase them. It’s easy to get lost among types of switches.
Parts of the switch: frame, button and mechanism.
The frame can be single, double, triple etc., depending on the fact that how many switches or sockets are lined beside each other. All of this can be in horizontal or vertical layout.
Single-pole switch: one light can be turned on and off with it
Chandelier switch: has two buttons, one light can be turned on and off in two sections
Alternative switch: one light (group) can be turned on and off from two different places
Cross switch: one light (group) can be turned on and off from three or more places
Luminance control switch: the amount of flux can be controlled by a button, so the luminance of the light is alterable
Touch switches can be purchased also beside the traditional tumbler switches, which perfectly fit to modern interiors.
Nowadays there is a quite wide range of color- and material assortment. The frame can be made of metal, wood, leather, glass, several types of stones, beside the well-known plastic. These mechanisms can be almost hidden with choosing the most fitting color for the wall, but they even can be highlighted and be made for the decorations of the interior by the assortment.
Ask for help of an interior designer for the choice.
The following three words are commonly used in interior design and related books. Sometimes still it’s not obvious when to use which.
Antique: marker of furniture, objects of art, or artisanship older than 100 years, independently of style. Its age, originality, condition, the manufacturer and rarity is important for collectors (full collection in case of a set). A restoration gives them back their original pomp.
Vintage: marker of objects that are younger than 100 but older than 15 years, concerning rather to their condition than age. It is a classification of strongly used, shabby surfaced furniture and household objects which marks even a style. It means rethought, reused, modified/renewed objects also. Giving vintage look to a new object is a distinct genre. It is not equivalent with the shabby chic style.
Retro: marker of household and decoration objects of years from the 50s to (presently) the 80s. Their age is old „only”. It is also a marker of objects that are new but made look like in the style or shapes of this era. Collectors are motivated by nostalgia and emotional bondage but of course originality and condition are also important. Retro has a pejorative meaning, “out of fashion”.
In case of uncertainty, ask for help of a professional dating an object.